What are the important features of liberalisation privatisation and globalisation? India Dictionary

private sector participation

But the most important reform measure of the new industrial policy was that it ended the practice of industrial licensing in India. The New Industrial Policy of 1991 comes at the center of economic reforms that launched during the early 1990s. All the later reform measures were derived out of the new industrial policy. The Policy has brought comprehensive changes in economic regulation in the country.

The place of the private and non-private sectors in industrialisation of the country. Concisely, it’s a assertion of aims to be realised within the space of commercial development and the measures to be adopted in direction of achieving these goals. This article discusses these “crises” and subsequent coverage reform. The reforms did away with the Licence Raj, lowered tariffs and interest rates and ended many public monopolies, allowing automatic approval of international direct funding in lots of sectors. And as anyone could have guessed, these reforms did the magic.

The Government kept the economy closed from the rest of the world, and this disconnected India from the global economy. To ensure the participation of foreign companies, integrating the country’s economy with the world economy was the next step. Reviving sick units – Transferring ownership, management, and control to private players helps the loss-making PSUs go through a restructuring process, thereby increasing their chances of revival. Privatization of Operations – This type of privatization includes the transfer of managerial and operational responsibilities of PSUs to private firms.


As a result of Globalization and free trade, Chinese goods started dominating the Indian markets more than Indian goods in Chinese markets. The demand for conventional items of exports like tea, jute, etc started having rise in domestic demand which previously formed the bulk of India’s exports, therefore their exports tended to fall. Farm products were started to be used as raw materials for the domestic industry. To meet the demands of increasing consumption of farm products by growing population India showed a significant decline in agricultural exports. Only after the initiation of economic reforms the volume became significant. The standard of living has become higher in the era of globalization due to an increase in income and opportunities for a larger section of people in the society.

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LPG led to increasing foreign direct investment and forex reserves. Both the public and private sectors created a strong base for the economy due to which the growth rate of GDP shot up to 8% per annum. The industrial coverage formally designates the spheres of exercise of the general public and the private sectors. It lays down guidelines and procedures that might govern the expansion and pattern of business exercise. Investors face problems to enter in emerging market international locations when there are lots of limitations. These barriers can include tax legal guidelines, overseas investment restrictions, authorized issues and accounting laws that may make it difficult or unimaginable to realize entry to the nation.

It became really difficult for companies to get permission on time and this led to financial loss. Industry and trade were subjected to many restrictions including quotas of production and permits of export and import. The focus was on protecting the domestic industry from international competition.

License or Permit Raj is a complicated system of regulations, licenses, and restrictions that were imposed to run and set up businesses between 1947 and 1990. As a response to it, the then finance minister of India, Dr. Manmohan Singh, introduced economic liberalization in India. Modern-day India we are noticing today is the product of some smart decisions that were taken to handle the 1990 economic crisis. The resultant effects of these decisions were both positive as well as negative. Reducing the burden – Privatization reduces the burden of the government as it no longer has to pay attention to many companies.

  • Flow of Capital – Measures such as the removal of trade restrictions, tax reforms, etc., led to the free flow of capital in the economy.
  • This also allowed foreign investors and the private sector to invest in domestic companies.
  • Although after failed attempts in 1966 and 1980, finally in 1991 the liberalization process bloomed in India.
  • As such, service exports are an important a part of many growing international locations’ growth strategies.

Local industries also took a hit owing to increased competition from private and international players. Lastly, the inflow of international commodities and services led to the erosion of culture. The rising fiscal deficit and increasing overvaluation led to this chaos.

Increment in Corporate Tax.

Increases investment opportunities for trading partners by providing a wider market size. Serves as an engine of growth as a higher investment means higher GDP growth. Facilitates the exports of goods at higher prices compared with domestic prices to the rest of the world.

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Poor fiscal management was one of the main reasons for the economy’s downfall. The government spent more than what it was earning in the 1980s, which led to declining foreign reserves. Most of the funds were used for developmental activities that did not create any revenue.

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Companies hire regular services from external sources mostly from other countries. The services are mainly backend computers related such as BPOs, KPOs. Globalisation is the outcome of the policies of liberalization and privatization. Import licensing was abolished except in the case of hazardous and environmentally sensitive industries. In many industries, the market has been allowed to determine the prices.

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India, being a member of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade , which was the predecessor of the WTO, had to take affirmative actions to contribute to trade liberalization. Its motto was free trade, and the members had to globalize their economies by reducing tariffs on various commodities. This was done to benefit the developing nations, which had to compete with developed nations in international trade. Finally, in 1991, globalization was adopted as one of the reforms, and India lifted trade restrictions to enable easy export and import. Earlier, the companies were all state-owned as the leaders at that time thought of India as a socialist country, working for social welfare. State-owned entities used to provide products at very affordable rates, keeping in mind the overall poor economic status of the people at that time.

Uneven growth – The agricultural sector was one of the sectors that was sidelined in the process. There was growth in support services but nothing much was done that affected this sector directly. Controlling inflation – As reserves were declining and demand for them grew, inflation spiralled. One of the main objectives of LPG was to put a check on inflation.

The process of removing barriers of trade is called liberalisation and removal of trade barriers results in the phenomenon of globalisation. The cumulative effect was that our economy started slipping into stagnation, and by the end of June 1991, we landed into an unprecedented economic crisis. The situation was so alarming that our reserves of foreign exchange almost dried up and were barely enough to pay for two weeks’ imports. Specific changes embrace a reduction in import tariffs, deregulation of markets, discount of taxes, and larger overseas funding. Liberalisation has been credited by its proponents for the high financial development recorded by the nation in the Nineties and 2000s.

It is achieved by reducing tariffs and ensuring ease of investment for foreign investors. Growth in GDP, jobs, the spread of new technology, improved standard of living, and better products are some of the benefits a developing country can get by globalizing. Globalization increased competition in the Indian market between foreign companies and domestic companies. Some small producers were decimated due to global competition. Several industries like the manufacturing of batteries, plastic toys, tyres, MSMEs, etc were shut down, which led to joblessness.

features of liberalisation unviable enterprises were shut if seen economically unviable. These public sector enterprises started swallowing up all the opportunities of private entrepreneurs and were spreading indiscriminately. Subsequently, the government gave more managerial and operational autonomy by declaring them as Navaratnas, Minratnas etc. However, the privatization of public sector enterprises could not take place on the desired lines, and probably this is one of the failures of the Government’s New Economic Policy of 1991.

  • The focus on self-reliance and lack of investment in R&D acted as obstacles to technological development and hence led to the production of inferior quality of goods.
  • This has been accompanied by will increase in life expectancy, literacy charges, and food safety, though urban residents have benefited more than rural residents.
  • Curbing monopoly of the public sector from various areas of our economy.
  • By 1991, there were 246 PSUs and most of them were making huge losses.
  • Liberalization of autocratic regimes might precede democratization.

Liberalization is a process whereby a state lifts restrictions on some private individual activities. Liberalization occurs when something which used to be banned is no longer banned, or when government regulations are relaxed. In some cases they could stay authorized monopoly a minimum of for some a part of the market. This creative rigidity has been current all through many of the postwar interval.

Impact of privatization

The effects following liberalization are what should interest traders as it can present new opportunities for diversification and profit. As such, service exports are an necessary part of many growing international locations’ development methods. Protectionists in other nations, with some justification, will use the reluctance of Japan and China to liberalize to oppose further reduction of their very own nations’ barriers. It is nicely recognized that liberalization has main impression on the Indian economic system and made it a huge client market. Currently, many of the economic modifications within the nation are based mostly on the demand provide cycle and other financial factors.

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Most of the profitable undertakings were originally formed during the 1950s and 1960s when self-reliance was an important element of public policy. They were set up with the intention of providing infrastructure and direct employment to the public. Export duties have been removed to increase the competitiveness of the Indian goods in the international markets. Subsequently, demand, and supply of foreign exchange determined exchange rates and Government’s intervention is quite minimal in this aspect.


It was important to act swiftly as the situation was only going to worsen from that point on. Increasing corruption was a negative outgrowth of this crisis and had to be dealt with. Fortunately, the government at that time was able to foresee the consequences of these negative developments and acted quickly. The conditions placed upon India while lending it emergency funds acted as a boon for the country. Signs of recovery started showing up gradually, and the India we see today is the result of this comeback made possible by some great minds at that time. Increasing the equity limit for foreign investment was important to let foreign investors invest more in domestic companies.

India foreign trade policy is again suspecting trade liberalisation, as India has already decided to opt-out of the 16-nation Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership trade deal. Protectionist policies adopted by developed countries have not resulted in level playing fieldand affected the export income of developing countries like India. A huge public sector emerged, allowing state-owned enterprises to incur record losses without being shut down. The basic aim is to have clear capital flowing into and in another country to be able to enhance growth and efficiencies inside the home nation.

Solutions for Characteristics of liberalization, Privatization , Globalization? In English & in Hindi are available as part of our courses for Humanities/Arts. Download more important topics, notes, lectures and mock test series for Humanities/Arts Exam by signing up for free. 3.Export promotion through rationalization of traffic structure and reforms. 3.Removal of restriction on the movement of goods and services.

Mergers and Acquisitions – Big private entities could acquire a majority stake in smaller companies. This led to employees of the smaller firm losing their jobs if they couldn’t upskill themselves to hold their positions. Greater reliance, therefore, was placed on market forces of supply and demand rather than checks and controls. Huge amount of money was invested in the growth of PSU’S that turned out to be inefficient and corrupted resulting in huge losses. Relates to BOP deficit which is a difference between total receipts and total payments of a country on an account of economic transitions with the world.

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